Future Of Multilateralism In Global Turmoil: Rethinking Securiy, Economy, Democracy
In the introduction of his 1993 book titled Out of Control, Global Turmoil on the Eve of the 21st Century, Zbigniew Brzezinski referred to “discontinuity” as “the central reality of our contemporary history.” Rising authoritarianisms in today’s world cast a shadow over what was presumably learned from the atrocities committed by the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. Global governance through international organizations is shadowed by reliance on unfettered predominance of markets as well as many national obstacles jeopardizing social justice and prospects of peace. International organizations that were formed in the aftermath of the Second World War in order to prevent wars, defend human rights, democracy, and rule of law on an international scale seem to be declining in the course of the past decade. National referandums terminating the ratification of the Constitutional Treaty for Europe as well as Brexit raised questions about the stability and endurance of the European Union. Efforts of the United Nations General Secretariat to resolve conflicts such as the Cyprus issue did not deliver the intended results. Council of Europe’s guidance for democratization especially through the Venice Commission did not find a following among the leaders of its member countries. Leaders and analysts declared the North Atlantic Treaty Organization as obsolete and defunct. Are international organizations really in decline? Is there still room for multilateralism in international politics or is unilateralism becoming the only game in the world? Can international organizations still be engaged in facing global challenges to security, economy, and democracy? What are the new challenges that Turkey is facing in these times of discontinuity and global turmoil? Innovative, original essays on such and related questions are welcome.
Winners of Research Awards:
Cosette D. Creamer from University of Minnesota with "Judicial Responsiveness in the World Trade Organization"
Kerim Can Kavaklı from Bocconi University with "Does the Rise of China Weaken Global Governance? Evidence from the Anti-Trafficking Regime"
Moria Paz from Georgetown University with "A World of Walls".
Winner of the Special Jury Award: Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
Meltem Müftüler-Baç, Sabancı University – President of the Jury
Ayşe Kadıoğlu, Sabancı University
Fuat Keyman, Sabancı University - Istanbul Policy Center
Kemal Derviş, Brookings Institution – Sabancı University
Erik Jones, Johns Hopkins University
William Burke, Wright University of Pennsylvania
"Soft power, which is the ability to get what you want through attraction, can come from a country's culture, ideals or policies"
Joseph S. Nye, Jr. spoke: “When we talk about power, we expect others to do what we want them to do. I thought that it was more important to achieve this by making our idea more attractive, by developing a mutual relationship with others. Most of us do this already. So I named it soft power. Soft power is what one needs to make an effective foreign policy. The art of diplomacy is to get agreements. It is underpinned by the idea to sway the preferences of others rather than using force and sanctions to be influential in world politics. Soft power, which is the ability to get what you want through attraction, rather than coercion or payment, can come from a country's culture, ideals or policies."
Nye continued, “I believe that soft power will play a great role in Turkey's future. It is important that Turkey goes back to the soft power approach, and the use of soft power when planning its future. I think that the culture and universities in Turkey will contribute greatly to the country's soft power. Sabancı University and others make great efforts to preserve academic freedom and intellectual integrity. These will add to Turkey's soft power in the future. By utilizing its soft power, Turkey can achieve great things and create tremendous impact. I am confident that the future holds great things for Turkey."